Some adults think they are ‘intolerant to milk and to lactose’. Because of this perceived risk, they consequently consume less calcium and expose themselves to an increased risk of bone disorders, osteoporosis in particular. Nevertheless, a significant number of these people are incorrect in their diagnosis as has been shown in double blind placebo controlled studies. Often, irritable bowel syndrome is responsible for the errors in diagnosis.
Calcic mineral waters contain between 150 mg and 600 mg of calcium per liter, mostly associated with bicarbonates (sparkling water) or sulfates (still water). These waters are interesting sources of calcium, of which intestinal absorption is similar to that of calcium from milk. But that’s where the comparison stops. Calcium in milk is part of a food matrix containing amongst others lactose, phosphopeptides, phosphorus, vitamin D…, that enhances the bioavailability of calcium and guarantees its retention in bones. These favourable conditions are not found in water, often consumed outside meals and without simultaneous intake of phosphorus. Moreover, some waters with high sulfate content boost the loss of calcium through urine.
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of specific trans fatty acids that differ from other trans fatty acids because of their shape and their properties. Some of them are synthetic in origin (supplements), others are found in industrial products, and most of them originate naturally. Just as you should not confuse trans fatty acids of natural origin with trans fatty acids of industrial origin (because of their different effects on health), you cannot put all CLAs in the same basket. Although studies (in test tubes and in animals) suggest that the main CLA in milk – rumenic acid – could have beneficial effects by reducing the risk of some illnesses, the consumption at high doses of certain other CLAs (mostly of synthetic origin) could be toxic. Intake of CLAs in the form of supplements (capsule, pills, fortified foods) is therefore not advised.
Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone mineralisation in particular by increasing the absorption of calcium. Diets usually contain little vitamin D (you can find vitamin D in fatty fish, liver, eggs, butter and cheese). Vitamin D is produced by the action of ultra violet light on your skin. Older people and children often have deficiencies in vitamin D. Dairy products fortified with vitamin D could be helpful for people at risk who are not taking supplements of vitamin D.
According to some people, “a diet rich in animal proteins – in particular dairy proteins – provokes an excess of acid that dissolves the bone minerals which would then be excreted in high amounts in urine.” This is not true! Because of complex mechanisms, especially by the kidneys, a body in good health is always capable of maintaining a good ‘acid-base’ balance. In addition, animal proteins are not more acid than vegetable proteins. Even if they could cause a short-term excretion of more calcium in urine, this does not have an impact on your bones in the long term. In fact, a diet rich in protein increases the intestinal absorption of calcium. It therefore does not affect the calcium balance (which is the difference between the incoming and outgoing amounts of calcium), nor does it have an effect on the bone balance (which is estimated by assessing the processes of destruction and formation of bones). Dairy proteins are, in fact, beneficial for bones!
Whole goat’s milk contains approximately 3.5% fat (3.5g in 100ml of milk) and contains 58 kcal. Semi skimmed goat’s milk contains 48kcal/100 ml and 1.5% fat. Goat’s cheese contains between 12 and 27g fat/100g, meaning that compared to other cheeses they are somewhere in the middle in terms of fat content. Their fat content contributes to their typical taste and texture. The fresher a goat’s cheese is, the more water it contains and the lower its amount of fat is. The energy value of goat’s milk cheese varies from 160 kcal per 100g for fresh goat’s cheeses to 330 kcal per 100g for ripened cheeses. The fresher the goat’s milk cheese is, the lower its energy value (because it contains more water).
Goat’s milk is an excellent source of calcium (120mg/100ml). The level of calcium in goat’s milk cheeses varies between 80 and 530mg/100g. In order to profit from the nutritional quality of goat’s milk cheeses it is therefore important to make a distinction between different cheeses, which also have different tastes.
Milk proteins (like proteins of animal sources in general) contain, in the right proportions, all essential amino acids that your body can not produce itself. They can thus be considered as ‘complete’. On the contrary, plant proteins do not contain all essential amino-acids. Cereal proteins do not contain lysine, pulses do not contain methionine.
* If the deficiency does not relate to the same amino-acid, certain foodstuffs can complement each other; semolina and chickpeas, maize and beans, rice and lentils.
Although some ethnic groups such as African Americans and Asian Americans have a higher chance of developing lactose intolerance, this does not mean they have to avoid all dairy foods. Throughout our lifecycle we are fortunate enough to be able to take advantage of the nutritional qualities of a wide variety of dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt and ice cream).
Milk calcium has three major benefits: it is well absorbed by the intestine, it is bioavailable for bones, and the majority of milk products contain considerable quantities. However, many plants contain substances (such as oxalates, phytates …) that prevent the absorption of calcium (absorption coefficient of milk is 32,4%; spinach and water cress 5% to 13%). In addition, they contain much less calcium than dairy products (for 300 mg calcium you need ¼ liter of milk, but 850 g of cabbage or 3 kg of oranges). Calcium in plants usually does not have the same beneficial bioavailability as dairy calcium (with the exception of kale and broccoli), nor a similar bone retention (good ratio of Ca/P in milk).
A 1997 study in The New England Journal of Medicine showed that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy foods, with reduced saturated and total fat, can substantially lower blood pressure.
Butter can be heated or melted, but should not be overcooked. Above 120°C, it blackens, due to the traces of lactose and protein it contains, thus caramelising. On the other hand the fatty acids in butter are stable during cooking. Which is not the case for vitamins! The ideal way of preserving all the benefits of butter is therefore to have it uncooked, melted on or mixed in other food preparations (e.g. pastries).
Cream contains proteins and butter also contains traces. In general, these products are excluded from the diets of people with milk allergy (except in case of contrary medical advice with regard to butter). This is because the threshold for reactivity to milk proteins can be very low (in the order of micrograms) for certain people.
In vitro studies and animal studies show that yoghurts and fermented milks have a stimulating effect on the immune system. Studies on allergies in humans have shown a preventive and even curing effect of certain lactic acid bacteria. Nevertheless, the expected benefits such as increasing the efficacy of the immunisation processes, and improving local inflammatory responses, still need to be confirmed. No attempt at “curing” an allergy should be undertaken without a physician’s supervision.
The quantity of milk proteins that you eat has nothing to do with the mechanism of allergies. An allergy is an immune reaction that affects people that are genetically susceptible and can be triggered by traces of proteins. Allergies to milk proteins are relatively rare in adults and mainly concern children under 2-3 years of age (usually the allergy disappears after this age).
The quantity of proteins you eat has nothing to do with the phenomenon of allergy… An allergy is an immunological reaction that affects individuals who are genetically susceptible, and could be triggered even with traces of proteins.
Lactitol, produced from lactose, is used as sweetener. It can contain traces of proteins (approximately 3 mg/kg casein and 10 mg/kg of beta-lactoglobuline). Nevertheless, the European Food Safety Authority recently specified that in a normal diet, sweeteners with lactitol are in principle without risk for people with cow’s milk protein allergy.
People who are lactose intolerant cannot digest this sugar, which is naturally present in milk (goat’s milk but also sheep’s and cow’s milk), because they lack the enzyme lactase which is needed for its digestion. Symptoms of lactose intolerance are digestive problems (stomach upset, diarrhoea …). Ripened cheeses contain little or no lactose (which is eliminated during draining or degraded during ripening of the cheeses). In general, they can be consumed without problems by people who are lactose intolerant. Moreover, the majority of people who are lactose intolerant can consume yoghurts and small quantities of milk without problems.
People who are lactose intolerant cannot digest lactose, which is the natural sugar present in all types of milk (goat’s milk but also sheep’s and cow’s milk). Lactose intolerant people lack the enzyme lactase, which is needed for lactose digestion. Tolerance to lactose varies between individuals. Ripened cheeses and yoghurts – whether they are made from cow’s, goat’s or sheep’s milk – are generally well accepted by your body.
Some persons do not digest milk well and may have a stomachache or diarrhoea after drinking it*. These people are called « lactose-intolerant » (don’t tolerate the lactose in milk) because they do not have sufficient lactase, the enzyme that is required to digest this milk sugar. They can however – without experiencing symptoms – eat ripened cheeses (which contain much less lactose), yoghurts or other fermented milks (in which lactose is broken down by the lactic bacteria).
* Most people however do tolerate milk in small quantities (up to 250 ml) or when it is mixed with other food (in mashes, for example).
Lactose, except for pharmaceutical lactose, is seldom a pure sugar. It always contains traces of milk proteins that could cause allergic reactions in people who are highly allergic to cow’s milk proteins. That’s why lactose is listed on the label!
Experts advise not to consume goats’ milk or sheep’s milk in case of cow’s milk allergy. The proteins in these three milks have very comparable structures. A child who is allergic to cow’s milk, also risks being allergic to other milks. In addition, allergies to proteins in goat’s and sheep’s milk seem to be more common. For the same reason, allergists also advise not to give drinks on the basis of non- hydrolysed soy proteins. Rice-based “milk” products, and so-called “milks” from almonds or chestnuts are not advised either (as they are nutritionally unsuitable for growth and could favour the secondary development of other allergies). A diet for an allergic child should be dealt with by a specialist and it is necessary to get medical advice.
Experts advise not to use goat’s or sheep’s milk if you have a cow’s milk allergy. The three types of milk have a very similar protein structure, which increases the risk of allergic reactions for allergic people*.
* Products based on rice, almond or chestnut are also inadvisable (they are nutritionally unsuitable for infant development and, in addition, can favour the secondary development of other allergies).
In case of cows’ milk allergy, some experts recommend using goat’s milk or sheep’s milk. However, the proteins in these three milks have very comparable structures. A child who is allergic to cow’s milk, also risks being allergic to other milks. A diet for an allergic child should be dealt with by a specialist and it is necessary to get medical advice.
A food allergy can provoke a secondary lactase deficiency due to inflammation of the intestinal mucous membrane. This event can occur in celiac disease when a secondary lactase deficiency results from atrophy of the intestinal villi; it can also occur with cases of milk protein allergies. Lactose intolerance has been observed in children with a milk protein allergy at a rate of14% versus 3% in the control group. The decrease in allergic inflammation could allow recovery of the lactase activity.
Reactions to lactose are in general related to intolerance and not to an allergy. However, lactose is seldom a pure sugar. Contamination of lactose with milk proteins could trigger allergic reactions in children that are highly allergic to cow’s milk proteins (the allergenic threshold to cow’s milk proteins could be in the order of micrograms). Mandatory labelling of lactose, milk and milk products, allows people to identify those components in their diet.
Drinking warm milk with sugar or honey before going to bed in the evening helps to sleep better. This ‘grand-mothers’ story also has a scientific explanation. Drinking milk gives your body a surplus of the amino-acid tryptophan. Sugar that is added to the milk causes a small secretion of insulin that helps the tryptophan to enter the nervous system and to be transformed into serotonin, a substance that is conducive to sleep.
No, that’s why it is advised to have a well-balance and varied diet. For example, 300 mg calcium can be found in 250 ml milk (whether it is whole milk, semi-skimmed or skimmed), or in 190 g yoghurt or in 30g Emmental cheese, but also in 40 g blue cheese, 80 g Camembert or in 300 g of quark cheese (“fromage blanc”).
In order to produce milk, cows have to give birth to a calf. They produce milk during 10 months following calving. They then stop milking for two months (depletion). This resting period is necessary for the cow to reconstitute its reserves before having another calf.
No. At large farms the farmer has to buy his raw materials outside the farm more often than in small farms. However, this is no reason to think that his cows eat less well. The famer often calls on animal feeding advice to ensure that the cows have a feeding regimen which is well balanced.
To produce organic milk, cows need to eat organic feed. Their ‘menu’ is the same as that of other cows but includes feed produced according to the rules of organic farming. In particular it is forbidden to use synthetic fertilizers and genetically modified organisms. Regulations also specify that a majority of food should come from the same region.
Milk, whether it is whole milk, semi-skimmed or skimmed, always contains more or less the same amount of protein (3.2g/100ml). The level of protein in derived products (yoghurts, fresh cheese/quark and cheeses) is in general higher per 100g but lower when you take portion size into account (except for certain cheeses which are real concentrates of protein):
All cheeses contain vitamins. Goat and sheep cheeses are in general good sources of vitamins A, B2, B9 (folic acid) and B12.
Goat’s milk cheeses contain all vitamins of the B group and in particular vitamin B2 (maintenance of tissues, vision, growth …) and B9 (formation of red blood cells, nerve cells). Goat’s milk cheeses are also a good source of vitamin A, in particular important for vision, growth, protection of the skin, and anti-ageing.
The levels of cholesterol in goat’s milk range from 6mg/100 ml in semi skimmed milk to 12 mg/100ml for whole milk. Goat’s milk cheeses also contain cholesterol but in moderate quantities: between 20 and 30 mg for a portion of 30g*.
* To compare: 20 g butter contains 50 mg cholesterol; 1 egg of 60 g contains 270 mg, 100 g egg yolk contains 1560 mg, 10 g liver contains 300 mg. It is important to know that the cholesterol levels in food only have very limited influence on the cholesterol levels in a healthy person. People’s cholesterol levels depends on 2 sources: 2/3 is synthesized by the liver and 1/3 comes from food. The body of healthy people regulates the level of cholesterol: when consumption of cholesterol diminishes, the body will automatically produce more, and vice versa. Cholesterol is indispensable for life. It is the precursor of bile acids, steroid hormones and of provitamin D. It also plays a role in the development of cellular membranes.
Milk concentrates contain approximately twice as much vitamins as semi-skimmed liquid milk. Powdered milk contains 7 times more vitamins (however, if you add water to the powdered milk to reconstitute liquid milk, the level of vitamins per liter decreases, but nevertheless still is advantageous).
No, on the contrary. When ageing, your body has more difficulty synthesizing proteins and has more difficulty slowing down their degradation. In addition, older people suffer more from acute and chronic inflammatory diseases that require a higher rate of protein synthesis. In older people, a protein deficiency could have multiple serious consequences: loss of weight, reduction of muscle mass, tiredness, less resistance to infections, bone weakening etc. Their diet therefore has to supply enough protein for the increased requirements. Milk proteins are very well adapted to the needs of the elderly: a cup of milk supplies almost 10 g of protein, which is approximately 15% of the daily recommended value*.
* Recommendations are 1g of proteins/kg body weight/day. An elderly person weighing 60kg has to consume approximately 60g proteins a day (for example: 1 cup of milk, 100g meat or fish, 1 egg, 1 portion of cheese, 1 yoghurt, pulses and bread).
No, proteins do not promote decalcification of the bones. A bone is a tissue containing proteins on which calcium phospate crystals are bound. To maintain healthy bones, they need a supply of proteins, phosporus and calcium. These three nutrients are present in milk and milk products. The amount of calcium in bones depends on the amount of calcium absorbed in the intestine and the amount excreted in the urine. An increased intake of proteins (whether they are from animal or plant origin) may sometimes lead to a loss of calcium via urine. However, the body will compensate this effect by a higher absorption of calcium, i.e. the amount of calcium that stays in the body. On the other hand, several studies have shown that people with high intakes of proteins (especially dairy products) have a higher bone mass than consumers with lower intakes.
Various technologies exist to produce dairy products. They are either physical (thermal, mechanical etc), chemical (acidification) or biological (enzymatical, fermentation.). Several technologies can be used in succession but the impact, in particular in relation to the nutritional value of the proteins, is nevertheless relatively minor. For example, the proteins are able to undergo modifications of their spatial structure (denaturation) with generally positive effects on their digestibility and their allergenicity. These treatments could also lead to interactions between proteins and other components in milk such as vitamins, lipids, carbohydrates* etc.
* The Maillard reaction between proteins and carbohydrates (after heating) leads to browning of the milk, releasing of odour molecules, but also to a decrease of the availability of certain amino acids (lysine in particular).
Whereas the level of water-soluble vitamins (mainly of the B group) is comparable, this is not at all the case for the fat-soluble vitamins (especially vitamin A). For example, whole milk contains twice as much vitamin A as unfortified semi-skimmed milk, and skimmed milk contains none, unless fortified.
During production of yoghurt, a clear liquid may be formed which is called serum by specialists. This liquid is in fact a concentration of proteins, vitamins and calcium. Some people systematically throw away this liquid. However, it would be preferable to mix this liquid again with your yoghurt before consumption.
In summer, cows can be fed with fresh grasses that are rich in beta-carotene (provitamin A). These cows produce milk that contains more vitamin A, and consequently the cream and butter made from this milk contains higher levels of vitamin A as well. The more deeply coloured the butter is, the higher levels of vitamin A it contains.
Only macronutrients (fats, carbohydrates, protein) supply energy. Calcium is a mineral. Minerals, like vitamins, do not supply calories and therefore do not bring on weight gain. On the contrary, recent studies suggest that calcium from milk has a beneficial effect on weight and on body fat.
Like butter, cream carries so called fat-soluble vitamins, i.e. a significant quantity of vitamin A (important for growth, resistance to infection, vision …) and vitamin D (which facilitates the absorption of calcium by the body and binding of calcium to bones). Reduced-fat butter and cream contain less fat and therefore less vitamins A and D.
For people enjoying good health, reasonable consumption of butter within a balanced diet does not constitute a problem. It is the excess that can be harmful. An increase in cholesterol levels is linked to many factors: heredity, gender, age, lack of physical activity, obesity ¡K Predisposed individuals or those monitoring their cholesterol levels should seek advice from a medical doctor.
Swiss researchers have recently analysed the behaviour of a ‘classic’ butter, a special butter and a special cream subjected to ‘extreme’ conditions. The three types of fat were heated to 180°C and 220°C for 20 and 60 minutes. Result: the heating of butter does not generate trans fatty acids. Milk-fat can thus be utilised without risk for the many fans of cooking with butter.
No. In most cases it is neither necessary nor nutritionally wise to consume a lactose-free diet. A recent study showed that most people with lactose intolerance can consume up to 2 cups of milk per day, one in the morning and one at night, without experiencing symptoms. Most of the people who are lactose intolerant can consume yoghurts (in which the lactose is broken down by lactic acid bacteria) and ripened cheeses (which contain no or little lactose) without any symptoms.
Dairy products are an excellent source of calcium, which is needed to develop and maintain strong bones, as well as a host of other nutrients. People who give up dairy products consume far less calcium than they need, putting themselves at risk for chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, hypertension and certain types of cancer. If you have an extreme case of lactose intolerance, talk to a registered dietitian about how to get enough of these nutrients from other sources.
Cholesterol content in milk ranges from 0 mg for 100 ml of skimmed milk to 12 mg for whole milk. By comparison: 20 g of butter contributes about 50 mg of cholesterol; one 60 g egg 270 mg, 100 g of egg yolk 1560 mg; a 100 g slice of liver 300 mg.
To be noted: intake of food cholesterol has little influence on the serum cholesterol level of a normal individual.
Whether you have whole milk, semi-skimmed milk or skimmed milk, they all contain roughly the same quantity of calcium (approximately 120 mg per 100 ml).
Trans fatty acids in milkfat and butter have a natural origin as they are derived from milk. A cow, like all ruminants, produces TFAs in one of her stomachs (the rumen) from her feed. Neither the production of butter, nor the production of other dairy products, generate TFAs.
Thermal processes (cooking) either have no influence on the allergenicity, make the allergenicity disappear, or manifest the sequence of allergenic proteins which were hidden before. They can also provoke interactions between different milk protein components (soluble proteins and casein micelles for example) as well as between lactose and proteins (Maillard reaction). These interactions are able to change the allergenicity of the original product.
Goat’s milk does not contain preservatives. UHT goat’s milk is heated at high temperature (Ultra High Temperature – UHT), which allows a longer preservation period at room temperature before opening (between 90 and 150 days, the expiration date is indicated on the packaging). Once you have opened the milk, you can keep it 2 to 3 days in the refrigerator.
By no means! On the contrary, yoghurt is a major source of calcium (about 180 mg per 125 g serving). Moreover, calcium in yoghurt is absorbed* very well by the body.
* Lactic acid bacteria transform part of the lactose in yoghurt into lactic acid, which improves the bioavailability of calcium by making it soluble and facilitating its intestinal absorption.
True milk allergies are very uncommon. Only about 1 to 3% of children experience cow’s milk allergy and they usually outgrow this by age three. In adults the incidence is even lower. Chances are you are not allergic to milk but have a mild degree of lactose intolerance. Try consuming smaller amounts to see what your “threshold” is for digesting lactose. Using the tips below will also ensure that you are getting enough of the important nutrients in dairy foods without experiencing symptoms.
Whey protein products come in various forms – powder, nutritional bars or beverages. Think about your diet and identify the easiest way to add these products without changing your favorite foods and habits. For example, whey protein powder can easily be added to a morning shake or smoothie. It can be stirred into yogurt, cottage cheese, juice or sports drinks, mashed potatoes, instant oatmeal, or sprinkled on breakfast cereal. The powder can be used as a protein fortifier in meatloaf, soup, sauces and instant pudding. If you typically eat energy bars, try a whey protein bar instead.
The diagnosis should be done by allergists (in hospitals). It will be based on a questionnaire, a clinical examination, tests and appropriate doses.
The diagnosis can be done with different medical tests (tolerance test, genetics test etc). The test most often used is the hydrogen breath test. After consumption of a solution with lactose (approximately 50 g, which is much more than a person normally consumes), the study subject breathes out into a small machine. In case of lactose intolerance, the hydrogen that is produced in the colon by fermentation of the lactose is absorbed in the blood and excreted by the lungs. The quantity of hydrogen that is breathed out thus increases very rapidly over the hours that follow ingestion of lactose.
Only trans fatty acids from industrial origin need to be monitored. Consumers can consult the list of ingredients on the labels of products. Indication of oil or fat that is partially hydrogenated indicates the presence of trans fatty acids of industrial origin. Additional information can be asked of the manufacturer of the product.
Milking of cows usually takes place twice (sometimes three times) a day (mornings and evenings at regular hours). Cows spontaneously go to the milking parlour because they like the relief that milking gives them. In fact, when their udders are too full the cows are at risk of suffering.
Note: Milk production stops naturally after approximately 16 hours and starts again when the cow is being milked.
Generally about 20-25 grams per day of whey protein is adequate to reap the benefits for body composition, weight management and immunity benefits. Athletes in training or competition may need more, 40-50 grams per day, to replace the proteins burned in exercise and to help repair and build new muscle tissue. Remember that whole food sources of protein such as milk and dairy foods, meat and legumes are still important for the other nutrients that they provide beyond protein.
For children and adults up to age 50, 200 International Units (IU) is the recommended amount of vitamin D per day. With age, we lose some ability to make the vitamin from sunlight exposure and to turn it into its active form, so the recommendation increases to 400 IU per day for those aged 51-70 years, and to 600 IU for those older than 70. In these latter groups, supplements may be needed to reach recommended intake levels.
However, these recommendations were set to assure adequate intakes of the vitamin primarily for bone health. As we learn more about vitamin D and its multiple health benefits, many experts argue that much higher levels are needed for optimal effects. Some researchers would like to see the recommendation increased up to 2,000 IU per day, especially in older people and other high-risk groups. When the committee meets again to reconsider the dietary recommendation, it will likely be increased.
The recommended protein intake is a hotly debated issue in the nutrition community. Many experts feel that the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.8 grams per kilogram body weight (0.36 grams per pound) is too low, particularly for athletes and those with special medical needs. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States recommends that protein intake comprise 10-35% of total calories – a range intended to take into account an individual’s different needs as a result of age, weight, gender, activity level, medical needs, health goals, individual preferences and lifestyle.
Approximately 43 million Americans have hypertension (high blood pressure), a major risk factor for two of the leading causes of death in this country – heart disease and stroke. In the USA…
No. Organically modified plants are plants in which the DNA has been modified, for example to make them resistant to insects. Feeding a cow with GMO feed or its conventional equivalent does not have an impact on milk composition. When the cow digests and assimilates the feed, the constituents of the feed are degraded, in particular the DNA and proteins. Thus, analyses can never result in finding genetically modified DNA in the milk of a cow fed with GMO feed.
Not only does cow’s milk contain a variety of important nutrients including calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and vitamins A and D, but the nutrients are available in a highly absorbable form. In addition, new research is showing there may be a number of other components in milk and milk products that are beneficial to health. Fortified foods and supplements don’t come close to providing this unique “package of nutrients” available only through dairy products.
No foodstuff in itself is fattening. It is when energy output (physical exercise) is less than input (food intake) that one is inclined to gain weight. Nevertheless, like all fatty matter, butter has a high energy value: 10 g of butter will supply about 75 kcal, just like the same amount of margarine, and a table spoon of oil will supply 125 kcal. Everything therefore is a question of quantity.
To be noted: research has shown that saturated fatty acids (along with unsaturated omega 3) are only moderate generators of body fat compared to omega 6.
Yes, this is completely true! The opalescent colour of milk is the result of its proteins, and in particular of the casein micelles. Recently, scientists have created almost transparent milk with help of enzymes that break down the caseins in small pieces.
Whole milk contains about 3,5 % fat (3,5 g for 100 ml milk), which makes it a low- fat food. Semi-skimmed milk contains 1,5 % fat, and skimmed milk only traces of fat.
Whether butter is salted or not, the level of vitamin A is comparable. Salt does not have an influence on the level of this vitamin.
The natural trans fatty acids (present in dairy products and meat) do not pose any health problem. In Western Europe, most industries have considerably reduced the level of industrially produced TFA in the majority of their products (levels should be less than 1% to zero). Trans fatty acids are therefore not a priori a major problem for the majority of the Western European population.
Cancer is influenced by different factors: genetics, smoking, the environment, living conditions ¡K The role of nutrition in its development and/or its prevention is no doubt important but difficult to evaluate. Excessive consumption of fats (via the supply of energy) could increase the risk of cancer. Concerning the effects of the different fatty acids, research results are very contradictory. In summary, saturated fatty acids are considered rather neutral, monounsaturated would have a protective role, and polyunsaturates of the series n-6 (wƒn6) would seem to stimulate the growth of tumors (colon, prostate, pancreas¡K) whereas the ones in the series n-3 (wƒn3) would seem to inhibit and/or oppose the effect of the wƒn6 (this highlights the importance of the ratio wƒn6 /wƒn3). Moreover, studies on animals and on cellular streams show the beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (rumenic acid) in milk on colon cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer. However these effects have not yet been confirmed in humans.
Under normal conditions the body can regulate the amount of calcium it absorbs. In some situations (excessive intakes of vitamin D, for example), calcium absorption will be excessive and the surplus can be deposited in soft tissues. The “safe limit” is considered to be approximately 2 grams per day.
No. On the contrary, yoghurt supplies a major amount of calcium (about 160 mg of calcium per 100 g of yoghurt). Moreover, the partial transformation of lactose into lactic acid improves the bioavailability of calcium by making it soluble, and therefore easier to absorb by the intestine.
When one is trying to control one’s weight, it is important to balance intake and output of energy, while maintaining variety in foods consumed. Cheese does not have to be excluded from the diet, especially since it is rich in calcium. Some high fat cheeses should be consumed in moderation. But amongst the extensive variety of cheeses, it is easy to find a cheese with a suitable fat content. Reduced fat cheeses are also available.
For persons who are overweight and are following a controlled diet, reduced fat products can be helpful. For others, these products should be considered as an additional choice in the already very wide range of milk products.
There is no reason to worry about the trans fatty acids of dairy origin. Even when consumed in quantities far above quantities that are normally consumed in the traditional diet, dairy trans fatty acids do not have any negative effect on health. Only an excess of trans fatty acids of industrial origin (in particular present in certain vegetable fats that are partially hydrogenated or in products that contain these fats*) can pose problems.
* Partial hydrogenation of vegetable fats and deodorisation of oils at very high temperatures could generate trans fatty acids. You can find trans fatty acids in products that are manufactured with these fats (e.g. biscuits, pastry, prepared food).
Like every other yoghurt (of cow’s milk or sheep’s milk), goat’s milk yoghurts are good sources of calcium, proteins and vitamins of the B group. Whether you prefer goat’s, cow’s or sheep’s yoghurt is overall a question of taste.
The best known effects of whey protein are its ability to help promote weight loss, increase lean muscle mass and boost the immune system.
Whey protein contains high levels of essential and branched-chain amino acids which have been shown to help people maintain or build muscle tissue. This can be important for athletes, people trying to lose body fat and older adults concerned about maintaining their muscle mass. Whey protein may also help with weight loss by increasing feelings of fullness and maintaining blood glucose at constant levels.
Whey proteins boost the immune system by helping the body produce an antioxidant called glutathione. Glutathione protects against free radical damage, pollution, toxins, infection and sunlight exposure. Adding whey protein to the diet may help protect health in people of all ages.
Fortification is the addition of one or more vitamins to foods that do not usually contain these vitamins or already contain these vitamins in lower quantities. In general, this is being done to improve the nutritional value of the foods in order to ultimately improve the intake of vitamins on population level or to reduce possible deficiencies in the population.
Restoration is the addition of vitamins that were destroyed during production of the foods, during storage or transport, despite following good manufacturing practices. This is done to restore the levels of vitamins that were present in the foods before they entered the production process.
Goat’s milk is an important source of proteins. It contains all of the essential amino acids for the body. Its levels of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium are high. Goat’s milk is rich in vitamins of the B group that contribute to good functioning of the body cells.
This diet is comprised of whole foods – fresh, frozen, canned, and dried – that taste good and are readily available in supermarkets. There is no need for supplements, special foods or fat substitutes.
During the period that cows may be under medical treatment (for example with antibiotics), they remain within the herd but are recognizable by a colored bracelet that the farmer attaches to their ankle. Milk of ill cows is not collected together with the milk from healthy cows. It is collected separately in a milk-churn. The milk will be collected again together with the milk of the other cows as soon as the cow is perfectly cured and no residues of antibiotics are found in the milk.
* Vegetarian diets including milk or egg proteins are not associated with protein deficiency.
Consequences vary depending on the stage of life:
Heating milk in a micro-wave oven does not modify the nutritional quality of its proteins, nor does it modify cells of its other constituents. The only precaution to take is verifying the temperature of the milk, which is often higher than the milk bottle or the cup. Also avoid putting the milk carton itself in the micro-wave oven as it contains an underlying layer of metal that can destroy the oven.
Lactose intolerance refers to digestive disturbances caused by not having enough intestinal lactase, the enzyme needed to break down lactose.
Lactose is the sugar found naturally in milk and milk products.
Cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance are hypersensitive reactions whose symptoms are provoked by exposure to a specific compound, milk protein and lactose respectively, at a dose that is tolerated by normal subjects. Both can have symptoms that are related to the digestive system, which are often confused. Allergy is caused by an immunological mechanism while intolerance is a reaction that is caused by an enzyme deficiency. In case of allergy, all milk products should be excluded from the diet. On the other hand, most of the people who are lactose intolerant can continue the consumption of milk products without problems ( especially yoghurts and ripened cheeses).
* Whole milk is better tolerated than skimmed milk because of slower gastric emptying. The following products are ranked from less to better tolerated: skimmed milk
Vitamin D is often referred to as the “sunshine” vitamin because our bodies can make it when our skin is exposed to the sun. About 10-15 minutes of sun exposure per day on our face, hands and arms—without sunscreen—is enough to meet our needs. And because it is a fat-soluble vitamin, it is stored in our fat cells for the days and weeks that we do not get enough sun exposure. Still, people who live in areas without much sunlight, those who are not outside often and those with dark skin need to consume vitamin D from their diets. During the long winter months we also need to ensure adequate dietary intake. Good sources of vitamin D include fortified milk, yogurt and fatty fish such as salmon, tuna and sardines. Other foods such as orange juice, margarine and breakfast cereals may be fortified with vitamin D as well. The chart below lists good food sources of vitamin D.
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Whey is one of the two major proteins found in cow’s milk, comprising about 20% of total milk protein. Whey proteins, which refer to a group of individual proteins, contain water, lactose, protein, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and fat. Depending on how it is produced, whey protein contains different levels of these nutrients.
Ripened cheeses contain little or no lactose (which is eliminated during draining or degraded during ripening of the cheeses). They can thus be consumed without problems for lactose intolerant people.
Multiple analyses are carried out. The farmer knows the cows. Before milking the farmer checks if they are in good health by inspecting, in particular, the udders. Then the farmer carefully examines the first few ounces (grams) of milk in order to isolate the milk that appears abnormal (lumpy or unusual color). Once the milking is finished, analyses are carried out by laboratories. These check In particular the content of fat and proteins in milk, microbiological quality, absence of antibiotic residues, the fact that no water is added to the milk, and several hygienic quality parameters. The milk is also checked upon arrival in the factory.
Lactoferrin is a milk protein. Its concentration varies between 0.1 and 0.3g/liter in cow’s milk and between 2 and 5g/l in colostrum. Human milk is particularly rich in lactorferrin (1.5g/l and up to 7g in colostrum). For many years scientists have been interested in this protein and the peptides of which it is composed. In fact, they attribute numerous properties to lactoferrin: it plays a role as an iron carrier, but also has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and even anti-inflammatory properties. Recently its potential role in bone health has been studied in vitro and in animal studies. Lactoferrin was capable of stimulating the formation of osteoblasts (bone constructing cells), slowing down their destruction and also of diminishing the formation of osteoclasts (bone resorption cells).
The main reason for this is that the lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt ‘pre-digest’ the lactose. Other factors of importance are, for example, the consistency of the yoghurt.
During digestion of plants, microorganisms present in the rumen of the cow (several million of bacteria types, protozoa and fungi) produce volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen. Hydrogen – that is toxic for animals – is rapidly transformed into methane, a gas that is eliminated by the cow which is mainly released by the mouth.
In Northern regions, grass is not permanently available (e.g. in rainy periods or periods of drought). Ensilage permits the farmer to have a sufficient storage supply of fodder to feed the animals available at the farm. Ensilage of maize is particularly interesting because it is rich in energy and provides a certain digestive comfort to the cows (in particular thanks to the presence of cellulose and to the maize starch properties). Furthermore, from an environmental perspective, maize has the advantage of often being cultivated on the farm itself which avoids the need for transportation.
Note: Evidence from paintings show that ensilage of maize was already used in the Nile valley between 1000 and 1500 BC.
In 1919, Sir Edward Mellanby discovered vitamin D and the role it plays in the development of the childhood bone disease, rickets. Since then, vitamin D has been recognized for its role in enhancing calcium absorption, thereby promoting good bone health. In fact, vitamin D deficiency can also lead to osteomalacia—weak bones in adults. But, new research is suggesting various other roles for vitamin D as well. Adequate vitamin D levels are thought to reduce risk of breast, colon and prostate cancers and play a preventative role in multiple sclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, emerging research suggests that vitamin D may be involved in optimal functioning of the immune system, mental activities and in reducing risk of periodontal disease—a chronic inflammatory gum disease that can lead to tooth loss.
Cows are ruminants. During a day they spend the same amount of time eating (8 hours) as ruminating (to regurgitate partially digested food to be able to chew it over again) (8 hours). The rumination can only happen if the feed to be re-chewed is rather fiber-like. In the ideal situation, a major part of the feed intake is made up of fibers or fodder. However, the fodder is usually not sufficient for milk cows of which the need for protein is very important. It is therefore necessary to give them other feed that contributes to protein intake (peas, rape seed cakes, or soy for example). These additions of concentrated feed (for example in granules) can represent 10-25% of their feed.
It is important to differentiate between these two diagnoses because of the difference in recommended diets for these two pathologies.
At least one out of three people who are allergic to eggs are allergic to the protein lysozyme, which is present in egg white. Lysozyme is used in certain cheeses because of its bacteriocidal properties. In case of egg allergy, the majority of cheeses should also be excluded from the diet, even if lysozyme is not listed on the label.
Combined effects of light and oxygen have a negative influence on vitamins leading to destruction of certain vitamins (e.g. 90% of vitamin B2 will be destroyed by 2 hours exposure to light). Milk should thus be kept in its original package, protected from light, air and heat.