Haakonssen EC, Ross ML, Knight EJ, Cato LE, Nana A, Wluka AE, Cicuttini FM, Wang BH, Jenkins DG, Burke LM. - 46618 N - PLoS One 2015 ; 10(5) : e0123302

The effects of a calcium-rich pre-exercise meal on biomarkers of calcium homeostasis in competitive female cyclists: a randomised crossover trial

PURPOSE: To examine whether a calcium-rich pre-exercise meal attenuates exercise-induced perturbations of bone calcium homeostasis caused by maintenance of sweat calcium losses.

METHODS: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 32 well-trained female cyclists completed two 90 min cycling trials separated by 1 day. Exercise trials were preceded 2 hours by either a calcium-rich (1352 +/- 53 mg calcium) dairy based meal (CAL) or a control meal (CON; 46 +/- 7 mg calcium). Blood was sampled pre-trial; pre-exercise; and immediately, 40 min, 100 min and 190 min post-exercise. Blood was analysed for ionized calcium and biomarkers of bone resorption (Cross Linked C-Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (CTX-I), Cross Linked C-Telopeptide of Type II Collagen (CTX-II), Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), and bone formation (Procollagen I N-Terminal Propeptide (PINP)) using the established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: PTH and CTX-I increased from pre-exercise to post-exercise in both conditions but was attenuated in CAL (p < 0.001). PTH was 1.55 [1.20, 2.01] times lower in CAL immediately post-exercise and 1.45 [1.12, 1.88] times lower at 40 min post-exercise. CTX-I was 1.40 [1.15, 1.70] times lower in CAL at immediately post-exercise, 1.30 [1.07, 1.57] times lower at 40 min post-exercise and 1.22 [1.00, 1.48] times lower at 190 min post-exercise (p < 0.05). There was no significant interaction between pre-exercise meal condition and time point for CTX-II (p = 0.732) or PINP (p = 0.819). CONCLUSION: This study showed that a calcium-rich pre-exercise breakfast meal containing ~1350 mg of calcium consumed ~90 min before a prolonged and high intensity bout of stationary cycling attenuates the exercise induced rise in markers of bone resorption – PTH and CTX-I. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000675628.