Rankin P , Stevenson E , Cockburn E. - 46350 N - Eur J Appl Physiol 2015 ; in press.

The effect of milk on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage in males and females

PURPOSE: The consumption of 500 ml milk following muscle damaging exercise can attenuate decreases in muscle functional capacity and increases in markers of muscle damage and soreness in males. There has been no similar research in female participants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milk consumption on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in males and females. METHODS: Thirty-two team sport players (male n = 16; female n = 16) were randomly, but equally divided into four groups: male milk, male carbohydrate, female milk, and female carbohydrate. Immediately following muscle damaging exercise, participants consumed either 500 ml of milk or 500 ml of an energy-matched carbohydrate solution. Skeletal troponin I (sTnI), creatine kinase (CK), peak torque, counter movement jump height, 20 m sprint performance and passive and active soreness were recorded prior to and 24, 48 and 72 h post-EIMD.
RESULTS: For females, milk had a likely/very likely beneficial effect on attenuating losses in peak torque at 60 degrees /s from baseline to 24, 48 and 72 h, and a likely beneficial effect in minimising decrements in sprint performance and soreness over 72 h. Milk was unlikely to have a negative effect on serum markers of damage from baseline to 48 and 72 h. For males, milk had an unclear effect on muscle function variables. Milk had a most likely/likely beneficial effect on limiting muscle soreness from baseline to 72 h, and a possible beneficial effect on attenuating increases in CK. The effect on sTnI was unlikely to be negative from baseline-72 h. Overall gender comparisons provided many unclear outcomes. However, female participants demonstrated smaller increases in sprint time, passive soreness, active soreness (non-dominant leg) and sTnI values.
CONCLUSION: Consumption of 500 ml of milk post-EIMD can limit decrements in muscle function in females, and limit increases in soreness and serum markers of muscle damage in females and males.