Danchaivijitr A, Nakornchai S, Thaweeboon B, Leelataweewud P, Phonghanyudh A, Kiatprajak C, Surarit R - 32329 N - Int J Paediatr Dent 2006 ; 16(3) : 192-8.

The effect of different milk formulas on dental plaque pH

OBJECTIVES : The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of different milk formulas on dental plaque pH after rinsing with these three categories, type of protein-based formulas (milk-based, soy-based, protein hydrolysate), type of sugar (only lactose, lactose and other sugars, only non-milk extrinsic sugars), and casein ratio (high and low casein), and (2) to observe organic acids formed by different milk formulas. METHODS : Baseline plaque pH and plaque pH at 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 60 min after rinsing with milk formulas were recorded by a combination electrode in 14 healthy subjects. Deionized water and 10% sucrose were used as a negative and positive control. The plaque sample was also analysed to identify and quantify the organic acids using a high-performance liquid chromatography. Parameters including minimum pH, maximum pH drop, and area under curve were compared by RMANOVA and paired t-test. RESULTS : The minimum pH was not significantly different among different protein-based formulas, whereas, the maximum plaque pH drop of soy-based and milk-based formula was significantly higher than that produced by protein hydrolysate formula (P=0.022 and 0.03, respectively). Area under curve produced by soy-based and milk-based formulas was significantly larger than that created by protein hydrolysate formula (P=0.025 and<0.001, respectively). Milk formulas containing only lactose caused significantly less plaque pH change in minimum pH (P<0.001), maximum pH drop (P=0.003), and area under curve (P<0.001) when compared with formulas containing lactose and other sugar but not with special formulas containing only non-milk extrinsic sugar. Similarly, special formulas containing non-milk extrinsic sugar produced significantly lower minimum pH and smaller area under curve than formulas containing lactose and other sugar did (P=0.044 and 0.009, respectively). No different results were found between high and low casein follow-on formulas. Lactic acid was produced more by rinsing with formulas containing lactose and other sugars than that produced by formulas containing only lactose. CONCLUSIONS : This study suggests that milk formulas containing added other sugars tend to cause a decrease in plaque pH.