Santos NW; Yoshimura EH; Mareze-Costa CE; Machado E; Agustinho BC; Pereira LM; Brito MN; Brito NA; Zeoula LM. - - PLoS ONE 2017; 12: e0172909.

Supplementation of cow milk naturally enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols to growing rats

This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow’s diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control. Whole milk supplementation increased initial weight gain and reduced gain in the adulthood of rats. Intake of common milk reduced cholesterol levels in non-obese rats and reduced insulin resistance in obese rats. PUFA-milk showed a decreasing effect on plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL concentrations, increasing plasma HDL concentration and reducing adipocyte size of non-obese rats, but no effect was observed in obese rats. PUFA/P-milk in obese rats resulted in greater deposition of muscle mass and mesenteric fat, with a tendency to lower LDL levels, and resulted a visceral fat accumulation in non-obese rats. Thus, whole common milk and PUFA-rich milk have shown to be beneficial in a normal metabolic condition, whereas common milk and milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols improve metabolic effects of obesity.