Mirmiran P , Golzarand M , Bahadoran Z , Ataee M , Azizi F. - 47526 N - Nutr Diet 2016 ; in press.

Paradoxical association of dairy intake between men and women with the incidence of hypertension: A three-year follow up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

Aim Gender differences in the association between dairy intake and the incidence of hypertension (HTN) are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the association of total dairy and dairy products intake, between men and women with the incidence of HTN in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study after a three-year follow up. Methods In this prospective study of 1087 normotensive adults, information about dairy intake was collected using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and again after three years of follow up. The association between the three-year incidence of HTN and dairy intake was assessed by a logistic regression model, adjusted for potential confounders.
Results In men, the three-year incidence of HTN increased in the highest quartile of total dairy compared with the lowest quartile (1.89, 95% CI: 1.01-3.57), whereas in women this incidence significantly decreased in the highest quartile of total dairy and low-fat dairy compared with the lowest quartile (0.53, 95% CI: 0.31-0.90 and 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.92, respectively). Incidence of HTN was increased in the highest quartile of milk compared with the lowest quartile only in men (2.39, 95% CI: 1.28-4.45).
Conclusions Our findings indicated that higher consumption of total dairy and low-fat dairy was inversely associated with the three-year incidence of HTN in women, whereas higher intakes of total dairy significantly increased the risk of HTN in men. In addition, intake of milk in men and cheese in women was positively associated with HTN.