Monaci L, Tregoat V, Van Hengel AJ, Anklam E - 32423 N - Eur Food Res Technol 2006 ; 223(2) : 149-79.

Milk allergens, their characteristics and their detection in food: A review

Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) isone of the most common food allergies in childhood. This allergy is normally out grown in the first year of life, however15% of allergic children remain allergic. Many studies have been carried out to define and characterise the allergens involved in CMA and described two major allergens:casein (alphas1-CN) and beta-lactoglobulin. In addition to this, many other milk proteins are antigenic and capable of inducing immune responses. Milk from sheep or goats differs from cow’smilk (CM) in terms of composition and allergenic properties. Food processing such as heating affects the stability, structure and intermolecular interactions of CM proteins, there by changing the allergenic capacity. Chemical and proteolytic treatments of milk to obtain milk hydrolysate shave been developed to reduce allergic reactions. Prevention of CMA largely relies on avoidance of all food products containing cow’smilk. To achieve this, interest has focused on the development of various technologies for detecting and measuring the presence of milk allergens in food products by immunoassays or proteomic approaches. This review describes the technologies implemented for the analysis of milk allergens (allergenicity, biochemistry) as well as their potential detection in food matrices.