Zheng H , Yde CC , Clausen MR , Kristensen M , Lorenzen J , Astrup A , Bertram HC. - 46366 N - J Agric Food Chem 2015 ; 63(10) : 2830-9.

Metabolomics investigation to shed light on cheese as a possible brick in the French paradox puzzle

An NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the differentiation between subjects consuming cheese or milk and to elucidate the potential link to an effect on the blood cholesterol level. Fifteen healthy young men participated in a full cross-over study where they consumed three iso-caloric diets with similar fat contents that were either i) high in milk, ii) high in cheese with equal amounts of dairy calcium, or iii) consisted of a control diet for 14 days. Urine and feces samples were collected and analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. Cheese and milk consumption decreased urinary choline and TMAO levels and increased fecal excretion of acetate, propionate and lipid. Compared with milk intake, cheese consumption significantly reduced urinary citrate, creatine and creatinine levels and significantly increased the microbial-related metabolites butyrate, hippurate and malonate. Correlation analyses indicated that microbial and lipid metabolism could be involved in the dairy-induced effects on blood cholesterol level.