Perrine CG , Sullivan KM , Flores R , Caldwell KL , Grummer-Strawn LM. - 44248 N - J Nutr 2013 ; in press.
Although pregnant women and some groups of reproductive-age women in the US may be at risk of iodine deficiency, data also suggest that iodine intake among many U.S. children may be above requirements. Our objective was to describe the association of iodine sources with iodine status among children. We analyzed 2007-2010 NHANES data of urine iodine concentration (UIC) spot tests for children aged 6-12 y (n = 1553) and used WHO criteria for iodine status (median UIC: 100-199 mug/L = adequate; 200-299 mug/L = above requirements; >/=300 mug/L = excess). The overall median UIC was above requirements for children aged 6-12 y [211 mug/L (95% CI: 194, 228 mug/L)]. Median UIC increased by quartile of previous day dairy intake, ranging from adequate in the lowest quartile [157 mug/L (95% CI: 141, 170 mug/L)] to above requirements in the highest quartile [278 mug/L (95% CI: 252, 336 mug/L)]. Median UIC was 303 mug/L (95% CI: 238, 345 mug/L) among the 17% of children who had taken a dietary supplement containing iodine the previous day, compared with 198 mug/L (95% CI: 182, 214 mug/L) among those who had not. In adjusted regression analyses, recent dairy intake and recent supplement use were significantly positively associated with UIC levels, whereas recent grain intake was negatively associated. Adding salt to food at the table was not associated with UIC. Iodine-containing supplements are likely not needed by most schoolchildren in the US because dietary iodine intake is adequate in this age group.