Silva C; Silva S; Antunes M; Silva G; Sarinho E; Brandt K. - - J Pediatr 2017; in press

Do infants with cow’s milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D?

Objective To verify whether infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) have inadequate vitamin D levels.

Methods This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with CMPA and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions.

Results Infants with CMPA had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29 ng/mL; p = 0.041) and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p = 0.049) than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with CMPA had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p = 0.002). Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p = 0.972).

Conclusions Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency.