Kiewiet MB, Gros M, van Neerven J, Faas MM, de Vos P - 46943 N - Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015 ; 26(3) : 206-17.
Cow’s milk proteins cause allergic symptoms in 2-3 % of all infants. In these individuals the tolerogenic state of the intestinal immune system is broken, which can lead to sensitization against antigens and eventually to allergic responses. Although a true treatment for food allergy is not available, symptoms can be avoided by providing the infants with hydrolyzed proteins. Hydrolyzed proteins are proteins that are enzymatically degraded. They lack typical allergenic IgE-binding epitopes but are also thought to play a pertinent role in other mechanisms inducing hypoallergenic effects. This review discusses the mechanisms and evidence for immunomodulating properties of cow’s milk hydrolysates. Hydrolysates are found to strengthen the epithelial barrier, modulate T cell differentiation, and decrease inflammation. Some studies suggest a role for hydrolysates in manipulating pathogen recognition receptors signaling as underlying mechanism. Peptides from hydrolysates have been shown to bind to TLR2 and TLR4 and influence cytokine production in epithelial cells and macrophages. Current insight suggests that hydrolysates may actively participate in modulating the immune responses in subjects with cow’s milk allergy and those at risk to develop cow’s milk allergy. However more research is required in order to design effective and reproducible means to develop targeting strategies to modulate the immune response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.