Bongard V, Arveiler D, Dallongeville J, Ruidavets JB, Wagner A, Simon C, Marecaux N, Ferrieres J. - 47729 N - Eur J Clin Nutr 2016 ; in press.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Long-term observational cohorts provide the opportunity to investigate the potential impact of dietary patterns on death. We aimed to investigate all-cause death according to the consumption of selected food groups, and then to identify those independently associated with reduced mortality.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Population survey of middle-aged men randomly selected in the period 1995-1997 from the general population of three French areas and followed over a median of 14.8 years. Dietary data were collected through a 3-day food record. Cox modeling was used to assess the risk of death according to selected foods groups after extensive adjustment for confounders, including a diet quality index.
RESULTS: The study population comprised 960 men (mean age 55.5 +/-6.2 years). After a median follow-up of 14.8 (interquartile range 14.3-15.2) years, 150 (15.6%) subjects had died. Food groups that remained independently predictive of a lower risk of death after extensive adjustment were an above-median consumption of milk (adjusted relative risk: 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.86, P-value=0.005), fruits and vegetables (0.68, 0.46-0.98, P-value=0.041) and a moderate consumption of yogurts and cottage cheese (0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.81, P-value=0.005), other cheeses (0.62, 0.39-0.97, P-value=0.036) and bread (0.57, 0.37-0.89, P-value=0.014). Besides, there was a nonsignificant trend for a higher risk of death associated with highest sodium intakes.
CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of food groups that largely match recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause death in men. A diet providing moderate amounts of diverse food groups appears associated with the highest life expectancy.