Dugan CE , Fernandez ML. - 45556 N - Yale J Biol Med 2014 ; 87(2) : 135-147.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, impacts 34 percent of the U.S. adult population. MetS has been demonstrated to be affected by dietary components. Data from epidemiological studies and clinical interventions suggest that one or more dairy components might directly affect MetS parameters. For example, calcium has been postulated to reduce body weight by modulating vitamin D concentrations in plasma and therefore attenuating intracellular calcium effects in activating genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and reducing those involved in lipolysis. Peptides present in milk have been associated with the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme and, therefore, with blood pressure reductions. Branched chain amino acids may increase post-prandial insulin secretion and regulate plasma glucose levels, and leucine, an abundant amino acid in milk, may be responsible for decreased plasma glucose through modulation of mTOR. Through different proposed mechanisms, dairy nutrients may target all components of MetS.