Blekkenhorst LC, Prince RL,Hodgson JM, Lim WH,Zhu K,Devine A,Thompson PL, Lewis JR. - 46585 N - Am J Clin Nutr 2015 ; 101(6) : 1263-8.

Dietary saturated fat intake and atherosclerotic vascular disease mortality in elderly women: a prospective cohort study

BACKGROUND: The reduction of saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake has been the basis of long-standing dietary recommendations. However, recent epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting evidence in the relation between SFA consumption and risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) mortality.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of SFA intake with serum lipid profiles and ASVD mortality in a population-based 10-y cohort study.

DESIGN: At baseline (1998) 1469 women living in Perth, Western Australia, with a mean +/- SD age of 75.2 +/- 2.7 y had SFA intake measured by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcome data were serum lipids at baseline and ASVD deaths over 10 y (13,649 person-years of follow-up), retrieved from the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Other risk factors for ASVD were assessed and adjusted for in multivariable analyses.

RESULTS: ASVD deaths occurred in 9.1% (134) of participants. The highest quartile of SFA intake (>31.28 g/d) had an approximately 16% cumulative mortality risk compared with approximately 5% in the lowest quartile (<17.39 g/d) (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.54, 6.11; P = 0.001). Baseline SFA intake was associated with baseline serum total and LDL cholesterol in multivariable-adjusted models (beta: 0.199, SE: 0.056, P < 0.001 and beta: 0.190, SE: 0.051, P < 0.001, respectively). However, baseline serum total and LDL cholesterol were not associated with ASVD mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: High SFA intake was associated with the risk of ASVD mortality in this population of elderly women. Although there was a strong positive association between SFA intake and LDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol was not associated with ASVD mortality in this cohort. Nevertheless, these data support dietary advice to reduce SFA intake.