Gathirua-Mwangi WG, Zhang J. - 45096 N - Eur J Cancer Prev 2014 ; 23(2) : 96-109.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men worldwide. Although some nutrients have been linked to the development of total prostate cancer, it remains unclear whether these nutrients modulate the risk of its clinically significant form – advanced tumor. Therefore, this study sought to perform a systematic review of the literature on this topic. The papers reviewed were identified from PubMed using keywords diet and advanced, metastatic, or lethal prostate cancer. A total of 46 papers published until September 2012 met our eligibility criteria and thus were evaluated in this review. Epidemiologic studies have shown that, overall, the habitual consumption of a diet high in saturated fat, well-done meats, and calcium is associated with an increased risk for advanced prostate cancer. An inconsistent association was observed for intake of total meat, fruits, and vegetables. Although most case-control studies suggest that intake of these nutrients or foods significantly alters advanced prostate cancer risk, cohort studies yielded mixed results. No apparent effect of fish and zinc intake on advanced prostate cancer was found in most epidemiologic studies. Epidemiologic studies conducted to date have revealed that some dietary factors modulate the risk for advanced prostate cancer. If these findings are confirmed by more adequately powered epidemiologic studies, especially prospective cohort studies that measure the nutrients and their biochemical indicators, the risk of advanced prostate cancer, which is fatal and thus clinically significant, may be reduced by dietary modification or chemoprevention.