Weaver CM. - 45409 N - Curr Osteoporos Rep 2014 ; 12(2): 211-8.
Calcium is the dominant mineral in bone and is a shortfall nutrient in the diet. For those consuming inadequate dietary calcium, calcium supplements have been a standard strategy for prevention of osteoporosis. Recently, calcium supplementation has been linked to both increased and decreased cardiovascular disease risk creating considerable uncertainty. Moreover, recent reports have shed uncertainty over the effectiveness of calcium supplements to reduce risk of fracture. The evidence for calcium supplementation effects to both reduce risk of fracture and increase coronary heart disease and mortality are reviewed. Although the importance of good calcium nutrition is well known, determining the advantage of calcium supplementation to either bone or heart health has been hampered by poor subject compliance and study design flaws. At present, the current Recommended Dietary Allowances for calcium still appear to be a good target with potential risks for chronic disease if intakes fall too short or greatly exceed these recommendations.