Pandelova M, Lopez WL, Michalke B, Schramm KW. - 43141 N - J Food Composition Analysis 2012 ; 27(2) : 120-127.

Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn contents in baby foods from the EU market: Comparison of assessed infant intakes with the present safety limits for minerals and trace elements

In this study calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) were determined in most consumed baby foods in Europe including infant formulae and solid foods and beverages (SFB). Additionally, Cd and Zn contents were determined in baby foods from the “national baskets” of four selected countries (Italy, Spain, Slovakia, and Sweden). Overall, highest element levels were found in the soy-based infant formulae. Furthermore, the assessed daily/weekly intakes of the 0-9-month-old non-breast-fed infants were compared with the current safety limits of the 10 elements here analyzed. Assessment to Cd exposure to infants consuming commercial SFB was found to exceed the limit established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 2.5 µg Cd/kg bw. Furthermore, mercury acquisition higher than the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA) established provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 4 µg Hg/kg bw was determined for infants fed specifically with “follow on” milk infant formula. In regard to the estimated infant intakes of the non-essential (Pb and Ni) and the essential (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn) elements the values were within the safety limits.