Pannu PK; Zhao Y; Soares MJ; Piers LS; Ansari Z. - - Public Health Nutr 2017; 20 (10): 1785-96.

The associations of vitamin D status and dietary calcium with the metabolic syndrome: an analysis of the Victorian Health Monitor survey

Objective To examine the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), dietary Ca intake and presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Design A stratified cluster sample of a population aged 18-75 years from the Victorian Health Monitor survey.

Setting Non-institutionalized adults living in private dwellings in Victoria, Australia.

Subjects Adults (n 3404) with complete data and without type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Results Adjusted for sociodemographic factors, physical characteristics and dietary covariates including Ca intake, every 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with decreased odds of MetS (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0·85, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·89; PPP=0·141) but approached significance if unadjusted for 25(OH)D in the final model (AOR=0·81, 95 % CI 0·64, 1·02; P=0·073). No significant effect was obtained for tertiles of Ca intake. However, Ca and vitamin D tertile combinations suggested a beneficial effect of high Ca (median 1233 mg/d) only at low and medium 25(OH)D. The high 25(OH)D tertile was associated with significantly decreased odds of MetS regardless of Ca intake.

Conclusions A high vitamin D status significantly reduced the odds of MetS. A high Ca intake may have a similar favourable outcome but only at lower circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D.

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome Vitamin D Calcium 25-Hydroxyvitamin D