Liang J; Zhang Y; Xue A; SUN J; Song X; Xue B; Ji F; Gao W; He L; Pang Z; Qiao Q; Ning F. - - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2017; 26: 255-61.

Association between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and a reduction in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Qingdao, China

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this relationship is unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and type 2 diabetes prevalence in a Chinese population.

METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 4,343 individuals aged 35-74 years participated in a population-based cross-sectional study in Qingdao, China. The frequency and quantity of fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake were determined using a standard food frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was classified according to the WHO/IDF 2006 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate odds ratio (OR) for type 2 diabetes in relation to fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake in a multivariable model.

RESULTS: The multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) for the presence of type 2 diabetes were 0.68 (0.46-0.98), 0.50 (0.37-0.68), and 0.91 (0.66-1.25), respectively, for the highest versus the lowest groups regarding total fruit and vegetable, fruit or vegetable intake in women. The ORs for type 2 diabetes prevalence regarding the quantity of fruit and vegetable, fruit, and yogurt intake were 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.71 (0.61-0.82), and 0.56 (0.32-0.98) in women, but not in men. Seafood consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk in men, but not in women; the corresponding figures were 0.58 (0.35-0.96) and 0.92 (0.63-1.36), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fruit, vegetable, and yogurt intake in women and seafood intake in men were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes prevalence in this Chinese population. These findings require confirmation in a prospective study.