Wang W, Wu Y, Zhang D. - - Ann Epidemiol 2016 ; 26 : 870-82

Association of dairy products consumption with risk of obesity in children and adults: a meta-analysis of mainly cross-sectional studies

Purpose The association of dairy products consumption with risk of obesity remains controversial. Therefore, we reviewed and quantitatively synthesized the evidence from observational studies with a meta-analysis.

Methods A literature search was performed in relevant databases. Random-effects model was used to pool odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Dose–response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model.

Results Seventeen studies for total dairy products and 16 studies for milk with risk of obesity were eligible. The pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of obesity for the highest versus lowest category of total dairy products consumption were 0.54 (0.38–0.77) in children, 0.75 (0.69–0.81) in adults, and 0.74 (0.68–0.80) for both. Evidence of a nonlinear relationship was found (Pfor nonlinearity = .009). Milk consumption was also associated with risk of obesity [0.81 (0.75-0.88)] both in children [0.87 (0.80-0.95)] and in adults [0.77 (0.68-0.87)], and a linear relationship (Pfor nonlinearity = .598) suggested that risk of obesity decreased by 16% [0.84 (0.77-0.92)] for every 200 g/d increment of milk consumption.

Conclusions This meta-analysis indicates that dairy products consumption may be associated with a decreased risk of obesity. This association may be of public health significance

Keywords: Dairy; Dose–response meta-analysis; Milk; Obesity; Nutrition