Tian SB , Yu JC , Kang WM , Ma ZQ , Ye X , Cao ZJ. - 45659 N - PLoS One 2014 ; 9(7) : e101728.
PURPOSE: Observational studies have given inconsistent findings on the relationship between intake of dairy products and gastric cancer. We therefore conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize available evidence on this point.
METHODS: We searched the electronic literature databases of PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up until August 30, 2013. All studies were limited to the English language. Random-effects models were used to pool study results between dairy products consumption and the risk of gastric cancer. We also performed subgroup, publication bias and sensitivity analysis.
RESULTS: Eight prospective studies and 18 case-control studies were included in our analysis, with a total number of 7272 gastric cancer cases and 223,355 controls. Pooled relative risks of all studies showed no significant association between dairy intake and gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.25). When study design was separately analyzed, population-based case-control studies showed a positive association between dairy intake and gastric cancer risk (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07-1.74), whereas no associations were shown by hospital-based case-control studies (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.72-1.02) or cohort studies (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.91-1.13). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis shows that no clear association apparently exists between consumption of dairy products and gastric cancer risk. Further well-designed cohort and intervention studies should be conducted to verify this lack of association.