Shin S , Sung J , Joung H. - 45932 N - Eur J Clin Nutr 2014 ; in press.

A fruit, milk and whole grain dietary pattern is positively associated with bone mineral density in Korean healthy adults

Background/Objectives:   Osteoporosis is a major health problem that will grow in burden with ageing of the global population. Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis, including diet, have significant implications for disease prevention. We examined associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Korean adult population. Subjects/Methods:   In total, 1828 individuals from the Healthy Twin Cohort were included as subjects. Information on general characteristics, lifestyles and health status was obtained through a health examination, and BMD was assessed using DEXA. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record, and dietary patterns were examined by factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMD were examined using mixed linear regression, adjusting for family and twin structure as well as other potential risk factors for bone health.
Results:   Four dietary patterns were identified (Rice and kimchi; eggs, meat and flour; Fruit, milk and whole grains; and Fast food and soda). The ‘Fruit, milk and whole grains’ pattern was associated with a reduced risk of having low BMD in men (odds ratio (OR)=0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.22–0.67) and women (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.28–0.72) and was positively associated with BMD at multiple sites. The ‘rice and kimchi’ pattern had a positive association with only whole-arm BMD in men and women.
Conclusions:   Our results suggest that a dietary pattern with high intake of dairy products, fruits and whole grains may contribute positively to bone health in a Korean adult population, and dietary pattern-based strategies could have potential in promoting bone health.